We discovered serious weaknesses in WPA2, a protocol that secures all modern protected Wi-Fi networks. An attacker within range of a victim can exploit these weaknesses using key reinstallation attacks (KRACKs). Concretely, attackers can use this novel attack technique to read information that was previously assumed to be safely encrypted. This can be abused to steal sensitive information such as credit card numbers, passwords, chat messages, emails, photos, and so on. The attack works against all modern protected Wi-Fi networks. Depending on the network configuration, it is also possible to inject and manipulate data. For example, an attacker might be able to inject ransomware or other malware into websites.
The weaknesses are in the Wi-Fi standard itself, and not in individual products or implementations. Therefore, any correct implementation of WPA2 is likely affected. To prevent the attack, users must update affected products as soon as security updates become available. Note that if your device supports Wi-Fi, it is most likely affected. During our initial research, we discovered ourselves that Android, Linux, Apple, Windows, OpenBSD, MediaTek, Linksys, and others, are all affected by some variant of the attacks. For more information about specific products, consult the database of CERT/CC, or contact your vendor.
The research behind the attack will be presented at the Computer and Communications Security (CCS) conference, and at the Black Hat Europe conference. Our detailed research paper can already be downloaded.
Update your devices!
BleepingComputer has an updated List of Firmware & Driver Updates for KRACK WPA2 Vulnerability
- Apple - Sources inside Apple not authorized to speak on behalf of the company has told AppleInsider that the patch to remove hardware susceptibility was included in a “previous” beta of the current range of operating systems —meaning a release before Monday’s batch.
- Google - Android 6.0 and higher are currently vulnerable to this attack. When BleepingComputer contacted Google, their statement was “We’re aware of the issue, and we will be patching any affected devices in the coming weeks”. No information is available as of yet regarding Google WiFi.
- Microsoft - Microsoft quietly fixed the KRACK vulns in the October 10th Patch Tuesday.